There are various types of protections I am going to go through the most common ones from a schematic point of view, as well as the actual fundamentals of pass protection that I believe in regardless of scheme.
Pass Pro Scheme:
First one must decide on a scheme to use, here is a brief run down of the most common schemes.
B.O.B. - Big on Big, some also use it to mean Back on Backer... either way this is a 6 man protection scheme. This is the protection scheme that I use. From Day 1 we teach the kids how to ID fronts, we teach how to block each front. We can really simplify anything we see down into one of 3 base calls, Nic, Box, and 5-0. Anything else might be a variation off of one of these but our base rules for each front work however the defense is aligned. The center makes the front call and we go with whatever the Center says... it doesn't matter if the defense is running around carrying signs saying "WE ARE IN A 4-2 NIC", if the Center calls it a 5-0 that is what we go with; he is ALWAYS right.
After the Center makes his call the RB will declare where he fits into the protection... it doesn't have to be the side he is aligned to, he can cross to the other side but it is important he declares this so the OL know which LB he is responsible for.
We call the front, and the RB declares a side every single snap, so that the defense can never pick up when we are throwing a pass, or running the ball.
Here are pretty standard BOB protections vs common fronts.
The BOB protection might be slightly more complicated than the others I am about to detail but if you work the fronts and blitz pick up throughout the summer then the kids pick it up and you would be amazed at how goof they get at sorting things out. I have a large binder filled with just about every blitz/stunt you can draw up, all separated out by front call and I have an injured kid or assistant coach hold it up, I can get 2 groups going in a drill I call blitz pick up and we get a lot of reps in just 10 minutes. I like it because I think it gives us the best match ups, we never have a RB blocking a defensive lineman.
Full slide protection is a gap based protection rather than a man based protection. As the name suggests every offensive lineman is involved in the slide. The slide direction can be called in the huddle or the QB can call it at the line. Let's say the pass pro is designated as Slide Right, each offensive lineman is responsible for anything in his gap to the right.
The RB will pick up the first thing outside of the Left Tackle, the RB always works opposite of the OL to account for all 6 gaps (C,B,A,A,B,C)
The positive for this one is the simplicity of this scheme... no matter how exotic the defensive structure might get, you are protecting gaps and therefore you should be solid vs anything... you are letting the defense come right to you.
The downside is you are putting a RB on a DE, not many RBs can handle this blocking assignment on an every down basis. Also I have seen teams bull rush head up and cause OL problems because they are attacking the man rather than a gap and this can be hard to decipher for the OL.
As the name suggests this involves 1/2 of the OL sliding. It is a zone/man combination and essentially combines the BOB and full slide. I have to say that I am a fan of half slide, I think it might be the most common pass protection scheme used in HS football. Our BOB rules essentially turn into half slide is a team is sending guys.
The RB is critical in half slide, whatever side they declare, they are responsible for the LB to that side (like they would be in BOB) Let's say the RB designates he is protecting left. Now this tells the Left side they are in man to man protection, and the Center-RG-RT are sliding left. The LT will definitely be locked on with the DE, if the LG has a guy head up or a 3 tech then he has him BOB. Now if it is a 1 tech, or we just have a nose (3-3 stack or something odd) the LG will also be a part of the half slide, he would slide to his right gap as well, the LT will still stay locked on 1 on 1 vs the DE.
I don't really see any risk in the 1/2 slide, I recommend it for most teams, and like I said our pass pro ends up looking very similar to this because although we are man to man, there are some zone ideas built in.
This last protection is a 7 man max protection with 2 RBs in the backfield. Each OL steps inside to sure up the inside and each RB blocks the edge on his side. This is very strong if you are seeing a lot of inside pressure, and you get your middle 3 OLWRs and you are potentially putting 2 RBs on DEs. This is not ideal and I would only do this if guys were just coming absolutely free up the middle on a play to play basis and my guys were getting destroyed. If that's happening, it is probably going to be a very long Friday night for you.
The advantage of BOB and half slide protection is that it gives you the possibility of releasing all 5 eligible WRs into the play. Because they are responsible for a player who is aligned at depth, the QB should have enough time, even if they rush free (at the snap not aligned on the los) to get the ball off. It is easiest to have the OL block their regular pass pro when RB is releasing, but it is important that your QB understands your drop back protection just as well as the OL and backs do so that he knows who the potential free rusher is. Having the ability to release 5 at times can be very beneficial because you can get a great mismatch or blown assignment with your RB out of the backfield.
I definitely recommend using B.O.B. or 1/2 slide protection. I think they are the 2 most sound 6 man protection schemes.
Pass Pro Fundamentals:
Now that we have some elementary understanding of pass protection schemes we can go over basic fundamentals.
1. Stance - Everything in football begins with a proper stance. Without a well balanced stance you will never be able to get back and into proper pass pro position. We have used a 2 point stance the last 2 seasons but are going to be in a light 3 point stance this year. Very little weight on our hand, we pull and have a lot of lateral movement plays (down blocking and reach blocking) so getting off balanced going forward would just hurt us.
2. Set - The initial movement of an offensive lineman is his set. The set must gain depth off of the LOS, this allows the OL to get into proper body position, buys him time before contact and helps the OL see any stunts or twists. There are 2 basic schools of thought for pass setting, the kick slide and the vertical set. The kick slide is the "traditional" approach to pass setting. It is still used by probably every NFL team and any pro style NCAA team. Here is some video of kick sliding...
It is a backwards kick of the outside leg while sliding the inside leg back... hence the name kick slide.
Vertical setting is more of a backwards run, where the OL steps backwards with his inside foot first then his outside foot. Vertical setting is what all of the spread air raid colleges are either already running or moving towards. I have done 2 posts on vertical setting in the past they can be found here...Vertical Setting & Vertical Setting 2.0 . The first post is the standard way vertical setting is taught, the VS 2.0 I wrote recently is more adaptations that I have found work best for us.
The next thing we must do is get into proper body position. We need a good stagger, outside foot should be back, inside foot should be up. I call the inside foot our power foot, and the outside foot our slide foot. We should have good bend in our knees and hips, we should be fighting to keep our head back, and our arms should be up, ready to punch, elbows in.
The set can also have some horizontal movement... if my defender is inside of me, I need to take that leverage away at the snap... if he is aligned outside I may need to drift outside at a slight angle as I get my depth so to widen his path to the QB.
3. Mirror - The OL must mirror the steps of the defender, he might work inside, outside, loop, there could be some twist on, he might bull rush, the offensive lineman needs to mirror the steps of the defender. I preach to my kids about always working to split the crotch of the defender. We can NEVER get beat to the inside. I use a drill to reinforce this daily. MIRROR DRILL. When mirroring the defender any move to the inside is cut off with what I call a power step with their post leg, cutting off the inside gap. An outside rush move can be combated in a more passive manner using a slide step of the slide leg. I believe the slide step should get both depth and width in an effort to widen the rusher so that if beat the OL can run the defender around the QB , wide around the "pocket". It is important while mirroring that the OL move in a step-step manner, and do not hop around, this creates a loss of base, a loss of balance, and a loss of power.
4. Punch - We will set and mirror and we want to wait for contact as long as possible in the drop back game, we have all seen a kid lunge out and get swam over instantly at the snap now you have someone hitting your QB before he is even at his drop. We want to wait until we can wait no longer and deliver an explosive punch straight out from out set up position into the defenders chest, this must be an explosive movement. The OL can not cock back, the blow should be delivered from the OL's throat area where his hands should be waiting to punch when he sets. It is important the punch does not involve lunging out or stepping at the defender. As we punch we want to fight to keep our head back, we must always give the defender as little to grab as possible.
5. The fight - Other coaches call this phase "Recovery" I like phrasing it as a fight because to me that is all it is. After initial contact it is a constant battle by the OL to continue punching while using his mirror steps to keep his body between the defender and the QB at all times. If you do the first 4 steps perfectly you will buy your QB 1 to 1.5 full seconds... we always want longer than that to throw and that comes from the constant fight of the OL to stay engaged and in front of the defender.
I hope this article helps with anyone who is trying to learn the basics of pass protection. Be on the look out for a sprint out pass pro article coming up very soon.